Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Curt Doolittle on the Evolution of our Understanding

This I found on Facebook, posted by Curt Doolittle [link] and was very intrigued by it. Some of its assertions are inarguable, some are more baffling to the layman, and some are simply a very good summary of intellectual history. There's been a lot of work lately on the origins of the European people, and this reflects much of it.

Feel free to argue or confirm any of this in the "comments" section.

THE EVOLUTION OF OUR UNDERSTANDING
(even if I solve cooperation that does not solve sentience)
0 - 1100 BC - HOMER (WESTERN HEROIC RELIGION)
1 - 330 BC SOCRATES-PLATO-ARISTOTLE (REASON)
The universe is simple and regular.
2 - 1620 BACON (EMPIRICISM)
2 - 1687 NEWTON ( EQUATIONS - PHYSICAL UNIVERSE).
Change from Geometry to Equations.
Behind all of nature was simple laws and ordered.
Four Pillars of Western Science.
3 - 1850 - DARWIN (ADAPTATION TO CONTEXT - BIOLOGY)
The four pillars are false. it is not that regular.
4 - 1936 TURING (INFORMATION - ALGORITHMS - NON-SMOOTH)
Most influential paper in mathematics in the past few hundred years
5 - 1880-1970 FAIL (COOPERATION)
The operational revolution fails. (What I am trying to do)
Spencer, Mises, Brouwer, Bridgman, Hayek, Popper.
I am pretty sure I solved this.
6 - ???? ??????? (SENTIENCE)
the measurement of reason (what Taleb is really trying to do)
(I have no idea what lies beyond sentience - if anything does.)
IT TOOK US A LONG TIME
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"Kurgan culture":
- Bug-Dniester (6th millennium)
- Samara (5th millennium)
- Kvalynsk (5th millennium)
- Sredny Stog (mid-5th to mid-4th millennia)
- Dnieper-Donets (5th to 4th millennia)
- Usatovo culture (late 4th millennium)
- Maikop-Dereivka (mid-4th to mid-3rd millennia)
TIMELINE
4500–4000: Early PIE. Sredny Stog, Dnieper-Donets and Samara cultures, domestication of the horse (Wave 1).
4000–3500: The Pit Grave culture (a.k.a. Yamna culture), the prototypical kurgan builders, emerges in the steppe, and the Maykop culture in the northern Caucasus. Indo-Hittite models postulate the separation of Proto-Anatolian before this time.
4000-3500 BC - THE DOMESTICATION OF THE HORSE
3500 BC - THE IMPORT OF THE WHEEL FROM EUROPE
3300 BC - EVIDENCE OF CHARIOTS
3500–3000: Middle PIE. The Pit Grave culture is at its peak, representing the classical reconstructed Proto-Indo-European society with stone idols, predominantly practicing animal husbandry in permanent settlements protected by hillforts, subsisting on agriculture, and fishing along rivers. Contact of the Pit Grave culture with late Neolithic Europe cultures results in the "kurganized" Globular Amphora and Baden cultures (Wave 2). The Maykop culture shows the earliest evidence of the beginning Bronze Age, and Bronze weapons and artifacts are introduced to Pit Grave territory. Probable early Satemization.
3000–2500: Late PIE. The Pit Grave culture extends over the entire Pontic steppe (Wave 3). The Corded Ware culture extends from the Rhine to the Volga, corresponding to the latest phase of Indo-European unity, the vast "kurganized" area disintegrating into various independent languages and cultures, still in loose contact enabling the spread of technology and early loans between the groups, except for the Anatolian and Tocharian branches, which are already isolated from these processes. The Centum-Satem break is probably complete, but the phonetic trends of Satemization remain active.
--- OUR PEOPLE ARE NOW DIVIDED INTO BRANCHES ---
---"
The find probably marks the end of more than 100 years of archaeological debate over whether the great cultural upheaval seen in the Bronze Age (2700 BC. to 500 BC.) was driven by ideas or by immigration.
"It is completely ground breaking, and the entire history must now be rewritten into a story of mobility and human expansion," says archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen from Gothenburg University. He led the archaeological part of the study.
By extracting and identifying genetic material from 101 Bronze Age people excavated in Europe and Asia, the scientists were able to see who Bronze Age people were and how they were related.
"This is the largest study ever -- more than double that of all previous studies combined -- and for the first time we can make population studies on fossil genetics," says Assistant Professor Morten E. Allentoft from the Centre for GeoGenetics.
The study has just been published in Nature alongside a similar study, led by Professor David Reich from Harvard Medical School, which maps the DNA of 69 Bronze Age people and supports the same conclusions.
Europeans were created by three migrations
The last few years were an intense race between Willerslev and Reich to be the first to map and analyse the European’s ancient genetic material.
They have already shown that modern Europeans share the genetic components of the early hunters but with the arrival of farming culture about 8500 years ago, there was a mixing with new genetic components. This shows up as a genetic difference between southern and northern Europe.
Neolithic people (4000-1700 BC) resemble us more but there is still something missing, and last year it became clear to scientists that there must have been a third wave of migration.
This was a migration to northern Europe, which could explain the genetic differences between northern and southern Europeans today.
"Whether the sample was taken in Germany, Poland, Denmark or Sweden, we see the same component, and we can show that it comes from the Caucasus," says Allentoft.
The component matches that of the relatively unknown steppe people, the Yamnaya, who were nomads from thousands of kilometres north of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Reichs and Willerslev's research groups agree that the Yamnaya tribe migrated west into northern Europe around 5,000 years ago.
Previous archaeological findings have shown that changes occurred in northern Europe around the same time.
The Yamnaya brought a completely new social structure with them, says Kristiansen.
"Pastoral people are more collective and live in villages, but with [the Yamnaya] there’s a much more individualistic culture, organised in nuclear families. You can see the change in the funeral rituals they introduce, such as the family burial mounds," he says.
The Yamnaya were a nomadic people who brought livestock with them and used horses to pull wagons that carried all their belongings. They burned forests to create grazing land until about 2000 BC when they began to settle down.
"But we see individual households with family farms and not villages," says Kristiansen and points to a fundamental change of Europeans both culturally and genetically.
"They are our main ancestor," he says.
Here, the first Yamnaya replaced the existing people, and then around 1,000 years later Yamnaya in Central Asia are abruptly replaced by a warlike people called Sintashta.
the migration of the Yamnaya culture seems to solve the old conundrum about the origins of Indo-European language.
"The mystery is solved -- the Indo-European language is first spread in Europe and then east to Iran and India," said Kristiansen.
The Yamnaya eastern migration also solves the riddle of how the now extinct Indo-European language Tokaisk arose from within China.
The new study strongly supports the “steppe hypothesis”, which claims that the Indo-European languages spread with these steppe people as late as 3,700 to 2,000 BC.
Why did the Yamnaya people migrate?
With large pieces of the puzzle beginning to fall into place, new questions open up -- such as what triggered that Yamnaya culture to migrate in the first place.
Kristiansen explains the current belief is that there was a decrease in farmers about 100 to 200 years before the Yamnaya migrated. One hypothesis is that these communities were hit by illness or crop failure and famine, which provided space for the Yamnaya.
The new studies set the stage for further work, to map genetic material deeper back in time, as well as our more recent history.
"We can for example see the formation of the modern Dane is not quite complete 2,000 years ago," says Willerslev. "It could be really interesting to see what happens later in the Iron Age and Viking times.""---
My point being that the steppe breeds for aggression and we are failing to understand that it reverses thousands of years of peadomorphic evolution by western man.
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Quibcag: A standard map of Indo-European languages, with a teacher-girl I've used before and have forgotten the provenance of.

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for sharing. :-)

    And now lots of linguists think Indo-European languages is grouped in a superfamily like Indo-Uralic languages,Eurasiatic languages,Indo-Semitic languages who could be part of a much larger group like Nostratic languages.

    Note then I all linked from Infogalactic instead of Wikipedia, that site is launched as an alternative to Wikipedia.

    ReplyDelete